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Unidirectional and multidirectional motion verbs

Русский



UNIDIRECTIONAL AND MULTIDIRECTIONAL MOVEMENT VERBS


   In Russian we use different verbs to describe movements depending on a type of the movement. If you confuse a verb in a particular situation, you might be misunderstood or your Grammar might be wrong.

Verbs of motion without prefixes

UNIDIRECTIONAL
 VERBS

MULTIDIRECTIONAL
VERBS

MEANING

Идти́

Ходи́ть

to go, to walk on foot

Е́хать

Е́здить

to drive, to ride on a transport

Бежа́ть

Бе́гать

to run

Лете́ть

Лета́ть

to fly

Плы́ть

Пла́вать

to swim

Нести́

Носи́ть

to carry something with hands

Везти́

Вози́ть

to carry something with a transport

Вести́

Води́ть

to lead

Брести́

Броди́ть

to roam, to wander

Ле́зть

Ла́зить

to climb

Ползти́

По́лзать

to crawl

Тащи́ть

Таска́ть

to drag

Гна́ть

Гоня́ть

to drive fast, to force someone to run

Кати́ть

Ката́ть

to roll, to move a thing with wheels

 —

Ката́ться

to drive around for fun

 

                               Cases often used with the verbs of motion

 

Cases

Combination with the motion verbs


Nominative

·   The subject makes an movement action itself

Челове́к е́дет на маши́не — A man is driving a car





Genitive

·  The place from the action is directed (starting point of the motion). Prepositions:
ИЗ, С, ОТ — from
И́З-ЗА — from behind
Я прие́хал из Москвы́ — I arrived from Moscow

·  The place where the action is directed. We use prefix ДО- with a motion verb and a preposition ДО.
Я бы́стро дошёл до по́чты — I quickly reached the post-office



Dative

·  The person, object, or a place to which motion is directed. Preposition К - to.
Я иду́ к сестре́ — I am going to my sister
Ло́дка плывёт к бе́регу — A boat is swimming to the shore

·  Motion along the surface of the object. Preposition ПО - along
Я плыву́ по воде́ — I am swimming along the water (on the water surface)
Она бежи́т по земле́ — She is running along the ground (on the surface)




Accusative

·  The place where the action is directed. Prepositions:
В/НА — in, at, on
ЧЕ́РЕЗ — across
ЗА — behind
Я иду́ че́рез мо́ст — I’m going across the bridge

·  The subject of the verb
Я вожу́ маш́ину — I drive a car





Instrumental

·  The place where the action is happening (!). Prepositions:
НАД — above
ПЕ́РЕД — in front of
МЕ́ЖДУ — between
ЗА — behind, after
ПОД — under
РЯ́ДОМ С — near to, close by
Он плывёт ря́дом с аку́лой — He is swimming next to a shark




Prepositional

·  Describing transport with the preposition НА - on
Они́ е́дут на авто́бусе — They are riding on a bus

·   The place where the action is happening (!). Prepositions:
НА — on
В — in
Соба́ка пла́вает в бассе́йне — The dog is swimming in the pool

 


UNIDIRECTIONAL VERBS



1.      Describing a movement in one direction at the moment of speech. English equivalent – present continuous tense. We are describing the action that is happening right now.

 

Я иду́→ в о́фис  – I am going to the office

Я качу́→ теле́гу — I am rolling the cart

Я плыву́→ по воде́ — I am swimming on the water

 

2.      Habitual movements in one direction in the present. English equivalent — present simple tense. We describe action that is directed —there→ OR ←back—. We don’t care about the direction itself, we care only about the fact that it is single. These sentences require a time marker.

 

Ка́ждое у́тро я е́ду на рабо́ту — Every morning I drive to the job

Ка́ждый ве́чер я е́ду с рабо́ты — Every evening I drive from the job

 

В 7 утра́ я везу́→ дете́й в са́д — At 7 a.m. I carry children to a kindergarten

В 5 ве́чера я везу́— и́х наза́д — At 5 p.m. I carry them back

 

3.      Describing a situation in the past while a subject was moving in one direction while doing   something else. English equivalent — past continuous tense.

 

Вчера́ я е́хал и говори́л по телефо́ну — Yesterday I was driving while talking on the phone

Я слу́шал му́зыку пока́ бежа́л — I listened to music while running

 


MULTIDIRECTIONAL VERBS



4.      Single fact describes that a subject went —there→  to visit a place and went ←back— in the past. The subject didn’t stay there and there is no connection with the present. English equivalent — past simple tense.

 

В воскресе́нье Вова е́здил в лес — Vova went to a forest on Sunday

Про́шлым ле́том я пла́вал в мо́ре — I swam in the sea in last summer

 

5.      Habitual repetitive action —there→  and ←back—. It’s very close in meaning to unidirectional habitual verbs but it has more general meaning. English equivalent — present simple tense. Theses sentences do not require a time marker.

 

Я ношу́→ на рабо́ту ноутбу́к — I carry a laptop to my workplace

Я вожу́→ дете́й в са́д —I carry children to a kindergarten

 

6.      Movements without a certain direction, including roaming, and random movements. English equivalent — any simple or continuous tense.

 

Я ↖↙брожу́↘↗ по у́лице — I am roaming in the street

По вечера́м я ↘↙е́зжу↖↗ по го́роду — I drive around the city in evenings

 

7.      Stable expressions with verbs –love, –like, –to be able to, –is learning, etc.

 

Я люблю́ пла́вать — I love to swim

Он у́чится ходи́ть — He is learning how to walk

 

8.      When a verb used as a subject in a sentence. English equivalent — sentences with a gerund as a subject.

 

Пла́вать по́лезно — Swimming is healthy


                               MOTION VERBS PREFIXES


Adding prefix to a motion verb adds direction or some meaning to the verb. Here are the most common prefixes used with the motion verbs.

 

Prefix

Meaning

   Visualize

Prepositions

Examples



ПО-

With unidirectional means the beginning of an action


 



В, НА, К

Мальчи́к побежа́лA boy started running
Маши́на пое́халаA car started moving



ПО-

With multidirectional means that the action was performed not for a long time, a bit


 



ПО

Я немно́го попла́вал — I swam for a bit
Пти́ца полета́ла на́до мно́й  — A bird flew under me for a bit


В-

Motion directed to the inside of an object



В

Студе́нт вошёл в классA student entered the class



ВЫ-

Motion directed from the inside of an object to the outside of the object




ИЗ, С, ОТ

Ма́ма вы́шла из ко́мнатыMom left the room


ПОД-

Approaching the object



К

Ры́ба подплыва́ет к бе́регуFish is swimming to the shore


ОТ-

Going away from the object



ОТ

Отойди от меня! — Go away from me!


ДО-

Reaching the object



ДО

Я долете́л до Брази́лииI reached Brazil flying


ЗА-

Dropping into the inside of an object or movement around corner



ЗА, К

Я зае́хал в го́стиI came over (for short time)


О-

Movement around something



Мы обошли́ у́лицуWe went around the street


ПРО-

Motion past or parallel to something


ЧЕ́РЕЗ, ВДО́ЛЬ, МИ́МО

Мы пробежа́ли ми́мо до́маWe ran next to a house (parallel)


ПЕРЕ-

Motion from one object to another



ЧЕ́РЕЗ

Я перешёл че́рез мостI went across the bridge


ПРИ-

Subject presence at the object destination



В, НА, К

Я прие́хал к нейI arrived to her


У-

Subject absence at the object destination



ИЗ, С, ОТ

Я уплы́л от опа́сностиI swam away from a danger



IT’S INTERESTING
In Russian we say:
Вре́мя лети́т — Time “flies”
Дни бегу́т — Days “run”
Го́ды летя́т — Years “fly”
Часы́ иду́т — Clocks “go” (= clocks are working)
Облака́ плыву́т — Clouds “swim” (= clouds are moving)
Оде́жда идёт — Clothing “goes” (= looks good on you)
Снег идёт — Snow “goes” (= falls)



I hope it's useful! Good luck with your language studying! :)
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18 марта 2013 (17:31:07)


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